Footnotes & Sources


The background and pro and con arguments were written by ProCon.org staff based upon input from the following footnotes (directly referenced) and sources (used for general research and not directly referenced):
Footnotes:
  1. Fareed Zakaria, "Complexity Equals Corruption," time.com, Oct. 31, 2011

  2. PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, "Global Effective Tax Rates," businessroundtable.org, Apr. 14, 2011

  3. Tax Foundation, "Federal Corporate Income Tax Rates, Income Years 1909-2012," taxfoundation.org, July 6, 2012

  4. Bureau of Labor Statistics, "Labor Force Statistics from the Current Population Survey," data.bls.gov (accessed Nov. 29, 2012)

  5. Tax Policy Center, "Major Enacted Tax Legislation, 1940-49," taxpolicycenter.org (accessed Dec. 13, 2012)

  6. Becky Yerak, "Aon Shareholders Approve Headquarters Move to London," articles.chicagotribune.com, Mar. 17, 2012

  7. Emily Chasan, "At Big US Companies, 60% of Cash Sits Offshore: JP Morgan," blogs.wsj.com, May 17, 2012

  8. Albert Wijeweera, "Corporate Tax Rates and Foreign Direct Investment in the United States," Applied Economics, Oct. 30, 2009

  9. Tax Policy Center, "Major Enacted Tax Legislation, 1980-89," taxpolicycenter.org (accessed Dec. 13, 2012)

  10. Robert Carroll, "Corporate Taxes and Wages: Evidence from the 50 States,” taxfoundation.org, Aug. 2009

  11. Mark Ahlseen, "Why Government Can’t Create Jobs,” fee.org (accessed Dec. 4, 2012)

  12. The President’s Economic Recovery Advisory Board, "The Report on Tax Reform Options: Simplification, Compliance, and Corporate Taxation" (2.41 MB) , whitehouse.gov, Aug. 2010

  13. Matthew Yglesias, "Dear CEOs: Please Stop Whining About Uncertainty," slate.com, Dec. 11, 2012

  14. Christina Romer and David Romer, "The Macroeconomic Effects of Tax Changes: Estimates Based on a New Measure of Fiscal Shocks," aeaweb.org, June 2010

  15. John Cragg, "Empirical Evidence on the Incidence of the Corporation Income Tax," Journal of Political Economy, Dec. 1967

  16. Kristina Peterson, "Report: Repatriation Tax Holiday a ‘Failed’ Policy," wsj.com, Oct. 10, 2011

  17. Mark Cuban, "My Views on Corporations and Taxes," blogmaverick.com, Nov. 15, 2011

  18. Phil Izzo, "Dearth of Demand Seen Behind Weak Hiring," wsj.com, July 17, 2011

  19. Robert Farley, "Warren: GE Pays No Taxes," factcheck.org, Apr. 24, 2012

  20. Reuven Avi-Yonah and Yaron Lahav, "The Effective Tax Rate of the Largest US and EU Multinationals," University of Michigan Program in Law and Economics, law.bepress.com, Oct. 2011

  21. Organisation of Economic Cooperation and Development, "Taxes on Corporate Income as Percentage of GDP," oecd.org, Nov. 30, 2011

  22. Organisation of Economic Cooperation and Development, "Harmonised Unemployment Rates," oecd.org, Oct. 2011

  23. Think Progress, "Buffet on Corporate Taxes", youtube.com (accessed Nov. 26, 2012)

  24. Tax Policy Center, "Historical Source of Revenue as Share of GDP," taxpolicycenter.org, Apr. 13, 2012

  25. Bureau of Labor Statistics, "Federal Government Receipts and Expenditures," bls.gov, Feb. 1, 2012

  26. Jeff Cox, "Companies Are Sitting on More Cash Than Ever Before," cnbc.com, Oct. 23, 2012

  27. Politifact, "Health Insurance Companies Are 'Making Record Profits, Right Now," politifact.com, July 23, 2009

  28. Tax Policy Center, "Major Enacted Tax Legislation, 1990-99," taxpolicycenter.org (accessed Dec. 13, 2012)

  29. David Lynch, "Raising Taxes Isn’t a 'Kiss of Death' for Employment Growth, History Shows,” bloomberg.com, June 1, 2011

  30. John Steele Gordon, "A Short History of the Income Tax," online.wsj.com, Sep. 27, 2011

  31. Brian Bass, "Corporation Excise Tax Act of 1909," ehow.com (accessed Nov. 29, 2012)

  32. Reuven Avi-Yonah, "Corporate Income Tax Act of 1909," Major Acts of Congress, 2004

  33. Organisation of Economic Co-operation and Development, "Taxation of Corporate and Capital Income," oecd.org, 2012

  34. Philip Dittmer, "US Corporations Suffer High Effective Tax Rates by International Standards," taxfoundation.org, Sep. 2011

  35. Joseph Thorndike, "Historical Perspective: Sacrifice and Surcharge," taxhistory.org, Dec. 5, 2005

  36. Tax Policy Center, "Major Enacted Tax Legislation, 1960-69," taxpolicycenter.org (accessed Dec. 13, 2012)

  37. Bill Bradley, "Tax Reform's Lesson for Health Care Reform," nytimes.com, Aug. 29, 2009

  38. Tom Dickinson, "How the GOP Became the Party of the Rich," rollingstone.com, Nov. 9, 2011

  39. The Film Archive, "Budget Bill Signing: President Clinton Signing the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act," youtube.com, Aug. 10, 1993

  40. Michael Wines, "Two Business Groups Attack Tax Plan," nytimes.com, May 11, 1993

  41. Meet the Facts, "Tag: Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1993," meetthefacts.com, Aug. 4, 2010

  42. White House, "Cutting Waste, Reducing the Deficit, and Asking All to Pay Their Fair Share," whitehouse.gov, Feb. 2012

  43. Jeanne Sahadi, "Corporate Taxes: What Obama and Romney Would Do," money.cnn.com, Sep. 7, 2012

  44. The White House and the Department of the Treasury, "The President's Framework for Business Tax Reform," treasury.gov, Feb. 2012

  45. Mark Keightley, "The Corporate Income Tax System: Overview and Options for Reform," fas.org, Sep. 13, 2012

  46. The White House and the Department of the Treasury, "The President's Framework for Business Tax Reform: An Update," treasury.gov, Apr. 2016

Sources:

Anheuser-Busch, "Anheuser-Busch InBev Announces Work Reductions in the U.S,” ab-inbev.com, Dec. 8, 2008

Binyamin Appelbaum, "Tax Burden for Most Americans Is Lower Than in the 1980s," nytimes.com, Nov. 29, 2012

Wiji Arulampalam, "The Direct Incidence of Corporate Income Tax on Wages," Institute for the Study of Labor website, Nov. 8, 2010

Andrew Balls, "How Government Spending Slows Growth,” nber.org, (accessed July 16, 2012)

Robert Carroll, "Corporate Taxes and Wages: Evidence from the 50 States,” taxfoundation.org, Aug. 2009

Citizens for Tax Justice, "Important Congressional Tax Votes, 1981-1999," ctj.org (accessed Dec. 5, 2012)

Congressional Budget Office, "The Budget and Economic Outlook: Fiscal Years 2010 to 2020" (1.87 MB) , cbo.gov, Jan. 2010

Government Printing Office, "How Business Tax Reform Can Encourage Job Creation: Hearing before the Committee on Ways and Means," gpo.gov, June 2, 2011

Jane Gravelle, "International Corporate Tax Rate Comparisons and Policy Implications," assets.opencrs.com, Mar. 31, 2011

HR World, "10 Big Businesses that Have Moved Their Headquarters Abroad to Pay Less U.S. Taxes," hrworld.com, June 4, 2008

Joint Committee on Taxation, "Testimony of the Staff of the Joint Committee on Taxation Before the Joint Select Committee on Deficit Reduction" , jct.gov, Sep. 22, 2011

Aparna Malthur, "How Taxing the Rich Harms the Middle Class," american.com, Feb. 15, 2012

Organisation of Economic Co-operation and Development, "Taxation of Corporate and Capital Income," oecd.org, 2012

Tax Policy Center, "Historical Corporate Top Tax Rate and Bracket: 1909-2010," taxpolicycenter.org, July 4, 2011

United States Treasury, "General Explanations of the Administration's Fiscal Year 2013 Revenue Proposals" (1.27 MB) , treasury.gov, Feb. 2012